Pan (taxon)

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genere de Panina[*], Hominidae
Schimpanse Zoo Leipzig.jpg
Identificatores e ligamines
ID NCBI: 9596
ID EOL: 42004
ID ITIS: 572838
ID MSW: 12100796
Commons: Pan (genus)

Pan esse un taxon.

Nomines[modificar | modificar fonte]

Chimpanze (pronunciate shimpanzé[1]) es le nomine commun pro duo species de simia in le genere Pan.

Classification[modificar | modificar fonte]

Rango taxinomic[modificar | modificar fonte]

Supertaxones[modificar | modificar fonte]

Chimpanzes es membros del familia Hominidae, familia que contine gorillas, homines e orangutanes. Chimpanzes se separava ab le evolution del homine circa 6 milliones annos retro e le duo species de chimpanze es le plus proxime relativos de homines. Totes es membros del tribo de Hominini (con le subtribo del species extincte Hominina). Chimpanzes es le sol membros cognoscite del subtribo Panina. Le duo species Pan se separava un million de annos retro.

Subtaxones[modificar | modificar fonte]

Le Fluvio Congo forma le frontieras inter le habitat native del duo species:[2]

Historia de evolution[modificar | modificar fonte]

The taxonomic relationes de Hominoidea

Le genere Pan es considerate parte del subfamilia Homininae como le homines. Le duo species es in le plus vecinitate relativos in vivo con homines e habeva un ancestre commun 6 milliones annos retro.[3] Le recercas de Mary-Claire King in 1973 trovava un ADN 99% identic inter homines e chimpanzes,[4] ma nove recercas trovava que le similitude es, in realitate, 94%.[5]

Intelligentia[modificar | modificar fonte]

Plus information: Primate cognition
Diagram of brain. Topography of the main groups of foci in the motor field of Chimpanzee

Chimpanzes fabrica utensiles e usa los pro obtener alimentos e pro social monstration; illes es manipulative e capabile de deception; illes pote apprender le uso de symbolos e comprende aspectos del lingua human includente un poco de syntaxe relational, conceptos de numeros e sequentias numeric;[6] e illes es capabile de planification spontanee pro un evento o statut future.[7]

Uso de utensiles[modificar | modificar fonte]

Un discoperta del plus grande importantia esseva in octobre 1960 quando Jane Goodall observava le uso de utensiles inter chimpanzes. Recerca recente indicava que le uso de utensiles per chimpanzes de petra es datate 4.300 annos retro.[8] [9] [10][11] [12][13]

Empathia[modificar | modificar fonte]

Matre e neonato chimpanze

Recerca recente ha demonstrate que chimpanzes ingagia in comportamento altruistic inter le gruppos,[14][15] ma es indifferente del bon-statut de membros del gruppos non relative.[16][17]

Communication[modificar | modificar fonte]

Chimpanzes communica in un maniera similar al communication non verbal del hommines, usante vocalisationes, gestos del mano, e expressiones facial. Recerca super le cerebro del chimpanze ha monstrate que lor communication activa un area del cerebro que es in le mesme position que area Broca, le centro del lingua in le cerebro human.[18]

Studios de lingua[modificar | modificar fonte]

Articulo principal: Great ape language
Profilo de un Chimpanze

Scientistas ha cercate como inseniar lingua human a multe species de simias superior. In le annos 1960, Allen e Beatrice Gardner inseniava durante 51 menses le lingua de signos a un chimpanze nominate Washoe que apprendeva 151 signos, e illa instrueva isto de maniera spontanee a altere chimpanzes.[19] Durnate un longe period de tiempo, Washoe apprendeva plus de 800 signos.[20]

Memoria[modificar | modificar fonte]

Un studio de 30 annos al Universitate de Kyoto Instituto de recerca pro primates ha demonstrate que chimpanzes pote apprender le numeros 1-9 e lor valores. Le chimpanzes demonstra un aptitude pro memoria photographic in experimentos super un chimpanze nominate Ayumu. Ayumu pote punctar le position de numeros 1-9 visibile durante minus de 1 seconda. Le mesme experimento esseva facite super le campion mundial de memoria Ben Pridmore in le plus tentativas.[21]

Riso in apes[modificar | modificar fonte]

Young chimpanzees
Young chimpanzees playing

Riso non es unic a homines. [22]

See also: Riso in animales

Interactions con homines[modificar | modificar fonte]

Historia[modificar | modificar fonte]

62-year-old chimpanzee
Gregoire: chimpanze a etate de 62 annos
Hugo Rheinhold's Affe mit Schädel ("Ape with skull") is an example of how chimps were viewed at the end of the 19th century.
Chimpanzee at the Los Angeles Zoo

Studios[modificar | modificar fonte]

Enos the space chimp before being inserted into the Mercury-Atlas 5 capsule in 1961.

In Novembre 2007, 1.300 chimpanzes exista in 10 laboratories in U.S.A. (dentre 3.000 apes in vivo in captivity in le labs de USA).[23] Multe recercas es intrusive[24]como "inoculation con agent infectious, chirurgie o biopsiee e testare de medicament".[25] Two federally funded laboratories use chimps: Yerkes National Primate Research Laboratory at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, and the Southwest National Primate Center in San Antonio, Texas.[26]

Vide etiam[modificar | modificar fonte]

Referentias[modificar | modificar fonte]

  1. "chimpanze" in le IED
  2. ADW:Pan troglodytes:information. Animal Diversity Web (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology). Recuperate le 2007-08-11.
  3. Chimps and Humans Very Similar at the DNA Level. Recuperate le 2009-06-06.
  4. Mary-Claire King, Protein polymorphisms in chimpanzee and human evolution, Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley (1973).
  5. Humans and Chimps: Close But Not That Close. Scientific American (2006-12-19). Recuperate le 2006-12-20.
  6. Chimpanzee intelligence. Indiana University (2000-02-23). Recuperate le 2008-03-24.
  7. Osvath, Mathias (2009-03-10). "Spontaneous planning for future stone throwing by a male chimpanzee". Current Biology 19 (5): R190–R191. Elsevier. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.01.010. PMID 19278627. 
  8. Julio Mercader, Huw Barton, Jason Gillespie, Jack Harris, Steven Kuhn, Robert Tyler, Christophe Boesch (2007). "4300-year-old Chimpanzee Sites and the Origins of Percussive Stone Technology". PNAS Feb. 
  9. Bijal T. (2004-9-6). Chimps Shown Using Not Just a Tool but a "Tool Kit". Recuperate le 2010-1-20.
  10. Fox, M. (2007-02-22). Hunting chimps may change view of human evolution. Archivo del original create le 2007-02-24. Recuperate le 2007-02-22.
  11. ISU anthropologist's study is first to report chimps hunting with tools. Iowa State University News Service (2007-02-22). Recuperate le 2007-08-11.
  12. Whipps, Heather (2007-02-12). Chimps Learned Tool Use Long Ago Without Human Help. LiveScience. Recuperate le 2007-08-11.
  13. Tool Use. Jane Goodall Institute. Recuperate le 2007-08-11.
  14. Human-like Altruism Shown In Chimpanzees. Science Daily (2007-06-25). Recuperate le 2007-08-11.
  15. Bradley, Brenda (June 1999). "Levels of Selection, Altruism, and Primate Behavior". The Quarterly Review of Biology 74 (2): 171–194. doi:10.1086/393070. PMID 10412224. Recuperate le 2007-08-11. 
  16. Nature. Nature 437, 1357–1359 (27 October 2005). Recuperate le 2009-06-06.
  17. Appendices for chimpanzee spirituality by James Harrod
  18. Patrono:Cite episode
  19. Gardner, R. A., Gardner, B. T. (1969). "Teaching Sign Language to a Chimpanzee". Science 165 (894): 664–672. doi:10.1126/science.165.3894.664. PMID 5793972. 
  20. Allen, G. R., Gardner, B. T. (1980). "Comparative psychology and language acquisition", in Thomas A. Sebok and Jean-Umiker-Sebok (eds.): Speaking of Apes: A Critical Anthology of Two-Way Communication with Man. New York: Plenum Press, 287–329. 
  21. The study was presented in a five documentary called "The Memory Chimp", part of the channel's Extraordinary Animals series.
  22. Steven Johnson (2003-04-01). "Emotions and the Brain". Discover Magazine. Recuperate le 2007-12-10. 
  23. End chimpanzee research: overview. Project R&R, New England Anti-Vivisection Society (2005-12-11). Recuperate le 2008-03-24.
  24. Chimpanzee lab and sanctuary map. The Humane Society of the United States. Recuperate le 2008-03-24.
  25. Chimpanzee Research: Overview of Research Uses and Costs. Humane Society of the United States. Recuperate le 2008-03-24.
  26. Lovgren, Stefan. Should Labs Treat Chimps More Like Humans?, National Geographic News, September 6, 2005.

Plus de lectura[modificar | modificar fonte]