Chimpanze

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Chimpanze[1]
Chimpanze commun (Pan troglodytes)
Chimpanze commun (Pan troglodytes)
Bonobo (Pan paniscus)
Bonobo (Pan paniscus)
Stato de conservation
Classification scientific
Dominio: Eukaryota
Regno: Animalia
Phylo: Chordata
Classe: Mammalia
Ordine: Primates
Familia: Hominidae
Subfamilia: Homininae
Tribo: Hominini
Subtribo: Panina
Genere: Pan
Oken, 1816
Species del typo
Pan troglodytes
Distribution de subspecies de Pan     Pan troglodytes verus     Pan troglodytes vellerosus     Pan troglodytes troglodytes     Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii     Pan paniscus
Distribution de subspecies de Pan     Pan troglodytes verus     Pan troglodytes vellerosus     Pan troglodytes troglodytes     Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii     Pan paniscus
Species e Subspecies
  • Pan troglodytes (chimpanze commun)
    • Pan troglodytes verus
    • Pan troglodytes vellerosus
    • Pan troglodytes troglodytes
    • Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii
  • Pan paniscus (bonobo)

Chimpanze (pronunciate shimpanzé[2]) es le nomine commun pro le duo species de simia que forma le genere Pan:

Le Fluvio Congo forma le frontieras inter le habitat native del duo species.[3] Ambes es considerate como species in periculo de extinction. Pan troglodites es dividite in quatro subspecies: P. t. verus, P. t. vellerosus, P. t. troglodytes, e P. t. schweinfurthii. Pan paniscus non es dividite.

Le chimpanzes es membros del familia del hominides, un familia que contine etiam le gorillas, homines, e orangutanes. Le chimpanzes se separava ab le evolution del homine circa 6 milliones de annos retro e le duo species de chimpanze es le plus proxime relativos de homines. Totes es membros del tribo de Hominini (con le subtribo del species extincte Hominide). Le chimpanzes es le sol membros cognoscite del subtribo Panina. Le duo species de Pan se separava un million de annos retro.

Classification[modificar | modificar fonte]

Supertaxones[modificar | modificar fonte]

Historia de evolution[modificar | modificar fonte]

Le relationes taxonomic del hominoides

Le genere Pan es considerate como parte del subfamilia Homininae como le homines. Le duo species es le plus proxime relativos in vivo con homines e habeva un ancestre commun 6 milliones annos retro.[4] Le recercas de Mary-Claire King in 1973 trovava un ADN 99% identic inter homines e chimpanzes,[5] ma nove recercas trovava que le similitude es, in realitate, 94%.[6]

Intelligentia[modificar | modificar fonte]

Plus information: Cognition in Primates
Diagramma del cerebro. Topographia del gruppos principal de foci in the campo motor del chimpanze

Chimpanzes fabrica utensiles e usa los pro obtener alimentos e pro social monstration; illes es manipulative e capabile de deception; illes pote apprender le uso de symbolos e comprende aspectos del lingua human includente un poco de syntaxe relational, conceptos de numeros e sequentias numeric;[7] e illes es capabile de planification spontanee pro un evento o statut future.[8]

Uso de utensiles[modificar | modificar fonte]

Un discoperta del plus grande importantia esseva in octobre 1960 quando Jane Goodall observava le uso de utensiles inter chimpanzes. Recerca recente indicava que le uso de utensiles per chimpanzes de petra es datate 4.300 annos retro.[9] [10] [11][12] [13][14]

Empathia[modificar | modificar fonte]

Matre e neonato chimpanze

Recerca recente ha demonstrate que chimpanzes ingagia in comportamento altruistic intra le gruppos,[15][16] ma es indifferente del bon-statut de membros del gruppos non relative.[17][18]

Communication[modificar | modificar fonte]

Chimpanzes communica in un maniera similar al communication non verbal del hommines, usante vocalisationes, gestos del mano, e expressiones facial. Recerca super le cerebro del chimpanze ha monstrate que lor communication activa un area del cerebro que es in le mesme position que area Broca, le centro del lingua in le cerebro human.[19]

Studios de lingua[modificar | modificar fonte]

Articulo principal: Linguage de grande simios
Profilo de un Chimpanze

Scientistas ha cercate como inseniar lingua human a multe species de simias superior. In le annos 1960, Allen e Beatrice Gardner inseniava durante 51 menses le lingua de signos a un chimpanze nominate Washoe que apprendeva 151 signos, e illa instrueva isto de maniera spontanee a altere chimpanzes.[20] Durnate un longe period de tiempo, Washoe apprendeva plus de 800 signos.[21]

Memoria[modificar | modificar fonte]

Un studio de 30 annos al Universitate de Kyoto Instituto de recerca pro primates ha demonstrate que chimpanzes pote apprender le numeros 1-9 e lor valores. Le chimpanzes demonstra un aptitude pro memoria photographic in experimentos super un chimpanze nominate Ayumu. Ayumu pote punctar le position de numeros 1-9 visibile durante minus de 1 seconda. Le mesme experimento esseva facite super le campion mundial de memoria Ben Pridmore in le plus tentativas.[22]

Riso in simias[modificar | modificar fonte]

Chimpanzees juvene
Chimpanzes juvene jocante

Riso non es unic a homines. [23]

Vide etiam: Riso in animales

Interactiones con homines[modificar | modificar fonte]

Historia[modificar | modificar fonte]

chimpanze al etate de 62 annos
Gregoire: chimpanze al etate de 62 annos
Affe mit Schädel ("Simia con cranio") per Hugo Rheinhold es un exemplo del vista del chimpanze al fin del seculo 19.
Chimpanze al Zoo de Los Angeles

Studios[modificar | modificar fonte]

Enos le astro-chimpanze ante insertion a in le capsula Mercury-Atlas 5 in 1961.

In Novembre 2007, 1.300 chimpanzes exista in 10 laboratorios in le S.U.A. (dentre 3.000 simias in vivo in captivitate in le laboratorios de S.U.A.).[24] Multe recercas es intrusive[25]como "inoculation con agent infectious, chirurgie o biopsiee e testare de medicament".[26] Duo laboratorios federalmente financiate usa chimpanzes: Yerkes National Primate Research Laboratory al Universitate Emory in Atlanta, Georgia, and the Southwest National Primate Center in San Antonio, Texas.[27]

Vide etiam[modificar | modificar fonte]

Referentias[modificar | modificar fonte]

  1. Groves, C.P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 182–183}}
  2. "chimpanze" in le IED
  3. ADW:Pan troglodytes:information. Animal Diversity Web (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology). Recuperate le 2007-08-11.
  4. Chimps and Humans Very Similar at the DNA Level. News.mongabay.com. Recuperate le 2009-06-06.
  5. Mary-Claire King, Protein polymorphisms in chimpanzee and human evolution, Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley (1973).
  6. Humans and Chimps: Close But Not That Close. Scientific American (2006-12-19). Recuperate le 2006-12-20.
  7. Chimpanzee intelligence. Indiana University (2000-02-23). Recuperate le 2008-03-24.
  8. Osvath, Mathias (2009-03-10). "Spontaneous planning for future stone throwing by a male chimpanzee". Current Biology 19 (5): R190–R191. Elsevier. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.01.010. PMID 19278627. 
  9. Julio Mercader, Huw Barton, Jason Gillespie, Jack Harris, Steven Kuhn, Robert Tyler, Christophe Boesch (2007). "4300-year-old Chimpanzee Sites and the Origins of Percussive Stone Technology". PNAS Feb. 
  10. Bijal T. (2004-9-6). Chimps Shown Using Not Just a Tool but a "Tool Kit". Recuperate le 2010-1-20.
  11. Fox, M. (2007-02-22). Hunting chimps may change view of human evolution. Archivo del original create le 2007-02-24. Recuperate le 2007-02-22.
  12. ISU anthropologist's study is first to report chimps hunting with tools. Iowa State University News Service (2007-02-22). Recuperate le 2007-08-11.
  13. Whipps, Heather (2007-02-12). Chimps Learned Tool Use Long Ago Without Human Help. LiveScience. Recuperate le 2007-08-11.
  14. Tool Use. Jane Goodall Institute. Recuperate le 2007-08-11.
  15. Human-like Altruism Shown In Chimpanzees. Science Daily (2007-06-25). Recuperate le 2007-08-11.
  16. Bradley, Brenda (June 1999). "Levels of Selection, Altruism, and Primate Behavior". The Quarterly Review of Biology 74 (2): 171–194. doi:10.1086/393070. PMID 10412224. Recuperate le 2007-08-11. 
  17. Nature. Nature 437, 1357–1359 (27 October 2005). Nature.com. Recuperate le 2009-06-06.
  18. Appendices for chimpanzee spirituality by James Harrod
  19. Patrono:Cite episode
  20. Gardner, R. A., Gardner, B. T. (1969). "Teaching Sign Language to a Chimpanzee". Science 165 (894): 664–672. doi:10.1126/science.165.3894.664. PMID 5793972. 
  21. Allen, G. R., Gardner, B. T. (1980). "Comparative psychology and language acquisition", in Thomas A. Sebok and Jean-Umiker-Sebok (eds.): Speaking of Apes: A Critical Anthology of Two-Way Communication with Man. New York: Plenum Press, 287–329. 
  22. The study was presented in a five documentary called "The Memory Chimp", part of the channel's Extraordinary Animals series.
  23. Steven Johnson (2003-04-01). "Emotions and the Brain". Discover Magazine. Recuperate le 2007-12-10. 
  24. End chimpanzee research: overview. Project R&R, New England Anti-Vivisection Society (2005-12-11). Recuperate le 2008-03-24.
  25. Chimpanzee lab and sanctuary map. The Humane Society of the United States. Recuperate le 2008-03-24.
  26. Chimpanzee Research: Overview of Research Uses and Costs. Humane Society of the United States. Recuperate le 2008-03-24.
  27. Lovgren, Stefan. Should Labs Treat Chimps More Like Humans?, National Geographic News, September 6, 2005.

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