Chimpanze

De Wikipedia, le encyclopedia libere
Saltar a: navigation, cercar
Wikipedia:Uso de taxoboxWikipedia:Uso de taxobox
Chimpanzes[1]
Common Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
Common Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
Classification scientific
Regno: Animalia
Phylo: Chordata
Classe: Mammalia
Ordine: Primates
Familia: Hominidae
Subfamilia: Homininae
Tribo: Hominini
Subtribo: Panina
Genere: Pan
Oken, 1816
Species del typo
Pan troglodytes
Distribution of Pan spp.
Distribution of Pan spp.
Species

Pan troglodytes
Pan paniscus

Chimpanze (pronunciate shimpanzé), es le nomine comun pro duo specias de ape in le genus Pan. Le Rio Congo forma le frontieras dentre le habitat native de le duo species:[2]

Chimpanzes es membros del familia Hominidae, familia que contine gorillas, humanos, e orangutanes. Chimpanzes separate ab le evolution del humano circa 6 milliones annos passate e le duo species de chimpanze es le relativos de humanos in le plus vecinitate, tote es membros del tribo de Hominini tribe (con le subtribe del species extinct de Hominina). Chimpanzes es le sol membors cognoscite del subtribe Panina. Le duo specias Pan separate se un million de annos passate.

Historia de evolution[modificar | modificar fonte]

The taxonomic relationes de Hominoidea

Le genus Pan es considerate parte del subfamilia Homininae como le humanos. Le duo specias es in le plus vecinitate relativos in vivo con humanos, habeva un ancestor comun 6 milliones annos passate.[3] Recerca de Mary-Claire King in 1973 trovate 99% identical DNA dentre humanos e chimpanzes,[4] ma nove recerca trovate ille es 94%[5].


Intelligence[modificar | modificar fonte]

Plus information: Primate cognition
Diagram of brain. Topography of the main groups of foci in the motor field of Chimpanzee

Chimpanzes fabrica utensile e usa lo pro obtener alimentos e pro social monstration; illes es manipulative e capable de deception; illes pote aprender le uso de symbols e comprende aspectos del lingua human includente alicun syntax relational, conceptos de numeros e sequentia numeric;[6] e illes es capabile de planificatia spontaneose pro un evento o statut future.[7]

Usa de utensile[modificar | modificar fonte]

Uno discoperta del plus importantia esseva in October 1960 quando Jane Goodall ha observate le uso del utensiles dentre chimpanzes. Recerca recente indicate que chimpanze utensile de petra es datate 4.300 annos passate.[8] [9] [10][11] [12][13]

Empathia[modificar | modificar fonte]

Chimpanzee mother and baby

Recerca recente ha demonstrate que chimpanzes ingagia in comportamente altruistic dentre le grupos,[14][15] ma es indifferente de le bon-statut de membors del grupos non relative.[16][17]

Communication[modificar | modificar fonte]

Chimpanzes communicate in un maniera similar del non-verbal communication del humanos, usante vocalizationes, gestures del mano, e expressiones facial. Recerca in le chimpanze cerebro ha monstrate que le communication del chimpanzes activate un area del cerebro del chimpanze que es in le mesme position con area Broca, le centro del lingua in le cerebro human.[18]

Studios de lingua[modificar | modificar fonte]

Articulo principal: Great ape language
Profilo de un Chimpanze

Scientistos ha cercate instructer lingua human a multe specias de apes. In le annos 1960 Allen e Beatrice Gardner innstructe durante 51 menses le lingua de signos a un chimpanze nominate Washoe que aprendeva 151 signos, e illa instructeva iste in un modo spontaneos a altere chimpanzes.[19] Durnate un longe period de tiempo, Washoe apprendeva plus de 800 signos.[20]


Memoria[modificar | modificar fonte]

Un studio de 30 annos a Universitate de Kyoto Instituto de recerca pro primates ha demonstrate que chimpanzes pote apprender le numeros 1-9 e illes valores. Le chimpanzes demonstrate un aptitudine pro memoria photographic in experimentos Le Ayumu Ayumu pote punctar le position de numeros 1-9 que monstra on un display pro un tempore de minus de 1 seconde. Le mesme experiment esseva fail del campione mundial de memoria Ben Pridmore in le plus tentativas.[21]

Riso in apes[modificar | modificar fonte]

Young chimpanzees
Young chimpanzees playing

Riso non es unic a humanos. [22]

See also: Riso in animales


Interactions con humanos[modificar | modificar fonte]

Historia[modificar | modificar fonte]

62-year-old chimpanzee
Gregoire: chimpanze a etate de 62 annos
Hugo Rheinhold's Affe mit Schädel ("Ape with skull") is an example of how chimps were viewed at the end of the 19th century.
Chimpanzee at the Los Angeles Zoo

Studios[modificar | modificar fonte]

Enos the space chimp before being inserted into the Mercury-Atlas 5 capsule in 1961.

In Novembre 2007, 1.300 chimpanzes exista in 10 laboratories in U.S.A. (dentre 3.000 apes in vivo in captivity in le labs de USA).[23] Multe recercas es intrusive[24]como "inoculation con agent infectious, chirurgie o biopsiee e testare de medicament".[25] Two federally funded laboratories use chimps: Yerkes National Primate Research Laboratory at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, and the Southwest National Primate Center in San Antonio, Texas.[26]


Vide etiam[modificar | modificar fonte]

Vide etiam:
Portal: Mammals

Referentias[modificar | modificar fonte]

  1. Patrono:MSW3 Groves
  2. ADW:Pan troglodytes:information. Animal Diversity Web (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology). Recuperate le 2007-08-11.
  3. Chimps and Humans Very Similar at the DNA Level. News.mongabay.com. Recuperate le 2009-06-06.
  4. Mary-Claire King, Protein polymorphisms in chimpanzee and human evolution, Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley (1973).
  5. Humans and Chimps: Close But Not That Close. Scientific American (2006-12-19). Recuperate le 2006-12-20.
  6. Chimpanzee intelligence. Indiana University (2000-02-23). Recuperate le 2008-03-24.
  7. Osvath, Mathias (2009-03-10). "Spontaneous planning for future stone throwing by a male chimpanzee". Current Biology 19 (5): R190–R191. Elsevier. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.01.010. PMID 19278627. 
  8. Julio Mercader, Huw Barton, Jason Gillespie, Jack Harris, Steven Kuhn, Robert Tyler, Christophe Boesch (2007). "4300-year-old Chimpanzee Sites and the Origins of Percussive Stone Technology". PNAS Feb. 
  9. Bijal T. (2004-9-6). Chimps Shown Using Not Just a Tool but a "Tool Kit". Recuperate le 2010-1-20.
  10. Fox, M. (2007-02-22). Hunting chimps may change view of human evolution. Archivate ab le original le 2007-02-24. Recuperate le 2007-02-22.
  11. ISU anthropologist's study is first to report chimps hunting with tools. Iowa State University News Service (2007-02-22). Recuperate le 2007-08-11.
  12. Whipps, Heather (2007-02-12). Chimps Learned Tool Use Long Ago Without Human Help. LiveScience. Recuperate le 2007-08-11.
  13. Tool Use. Jane Goodall Institute. Recuperate le 2007-08-11.
  14. Human-like Altruism Shown In Chimpanzees. Science Daily (2007-06-25). Recuperate le 2007-08-11.
  15. Bradley, Brenda (June 1999). "Levels of Selection, Altruism, and Primate Behavior". The Quarterly Review of Biology 74 (2): 171–194. doi:10.1086/393070. PMID 10412224. Recuperate le 2007-08-11. 
  16. Nature. Nature 437, 1357–1359 (27 October 2005). Nature.com. Recuperate le 2009-06-06.
  17. Appendices for chimpanzee spirituality by James Harrod
  18. Patrono:Cite episode
  19. Gardner, R. A., Gardner, B. T. (1969). "Teaching Sign Language to a Chimpanzee". Science 165 (894): 664–672. doi:10.1126/science.165.3894.664. PMID 5793972. 
  20. Allen, G. R., Gardner, B. T. (1980). "Comparative psychology and language acquisition", in Thomas A. Sebok and Jean-Umiker-Sebok (eds.): Speaking of Apes: A Critical Anthology of Two-Way Communication with Man. New York: Plenum Press, 287–329. 
  21. The study was presented in a five documentary called "The Memory Chimp", part of the channel's Extraordinary Animals series.
  22. Steven Johnson (2003-04-01). "Emotions and the Brain". Discover Magazine. Recuperate le 2007-12-10. 
  23. End chimpanzee research: overview. Project R&R, New England Anti-Vivisection Society (2005-12-11). Recuperate le 2008-03-24.
  24. Chimpanzee lab and sanctuary map. The Humane Society of the United States. Recuperate le 2008-03-24.
  25. Chimpanzee Research: Overview of Research Uses and Costs. Humane Society of the United States. Recuperate le 2008-03-24.
  26. Lovgren, Stefan. Should Labs Treat Chimps More Like Humans?, National Geographic News, September 6, 2005.
General referentias

Plus de lectura[modificar | modificar fonte]

Ligamines extern[modificar | modificar fonte]

Commons-logo.svg
Wikimedia Commons ha files multimedia de: Chimpanze
Wikispecies-logo.png
Wikispecies ha information referite a:

wikispecies


Patrono:Hominidae nav Patrono:Apes