Fascismo

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Fascismo
instantia de: political system[*], political ideology[*]
subclasse de: authoritarianism[*], ultranationalism[*]


Commons: Fascism

Fascismo (de (latino) fasces) es un forma de nationalismo radical autoritari que ganiava influentia in Europa in le seculo 20. Create in Italia in le annos del Prime Guerra Mundial, fascismo cercava unitate pro su nation per le uso de un stato totalitari, characterisate per le veneration del stato, le ultranationalismo e le militarismo.

Le fascismo es characterisate per un poter dictatorial, un suppression fortiate del opposition e un forte control del societate e del economia. Le prime movimento fascista ha emergite in Italia durante le Prime Guerra Mundial, ante extender se a altere paises europee. Illo es opponite al liberalismo, le marxismo e le anarchismo. Le fascismo es situate in le ultradextra in le spectro sinistra-dextra traditional.

Le fascistas videva le Prime Guerra Mundial como un revolution que apportava cambios massive in le natura del guerra, le societate, le stato e le technologia. Le advento del guerra total e le mobilisation del massa total del societate habeva debilitate le distinction inter civiles e combattentes. Un "civitate militar" surgeva in qual omne cives eran implicate in le fortias armate in alicun maniera durante le guerra. Le guerra habeva resultate in le surgimento de un potente stato capace de mobiliser milliones de personas pro servir in le lineas del frontes e proveder production economic e logistica pro supportar illos, ultra haver un autoritate sin precedente pro intervenir in le vitas del cives.

Le fascistas crede que le democratia liberal es obsolete e considera necessari le complete mobilization del societate sub un stato totalitari de un sol partito pro preparar un nation pro le conflicto armate e pro responder effectivemente a difficultates economic. Tal stato es dirigite per un chef forte (como un dictator e un governamento martial componite per membros del partito fasciste governante) pro forger le unitate national e mantener un societate stable e ordenate. Le fascismo refuta le assertion que violentia es automaticamente negative in su natura e considera le violentia politic, le guerra e le imperialismo como medios que pote realisar le rejuvenescimento national. Le fascistas advoca un economia mixta, con le principal scopo de obtener le autarchia (le auto-sufficientia national economic) per politicas economic protectioniste e interventioniste.

Desde le fin del Secunde Guerra Mundial in 1945, poc partitos se ha describite apertemente como fasciste e le termino es in loco ora usualmente usate pejorativemente per le opponentes politic. Le descriptiones neofasciste o postfasciste son interdum usate plus formalmente per describer partitos del ultradextra con ideologias similar a, o cuje radices son in le movimentos fasciste del seculo XX.

Etymologia[modificar | modificar fonte]

Le termino italiano fascismo es derivate de fascio qual significa "un fasce de bastos", de le parola latin fascis. Isto era le nomine date a organisationes politic in Italia cognoscite como fasci, gruppos similar a guildas o syndicatos. Secundo Mussolini, le Partito Fasciste Revolutionari (Partito Fascista Rivoluzionario o PFR) esseva fundate in Italia in 1915. In 1919, Mussolini fundeva le Fasci Italiani di Combattimento in Milano, qual deveniva le Partito Nazionale Fascista (Partito National Fasciste) duo annos depois. Le fasciste comenciava a associar le termino con le antic fasces roman o fascio littorio, un fasce de bastos ligate circa un hacha, un antic symbolo roman del autoritate del magistrato civic portate per su lictores, qual poteva esser usate pro le punition corporal e le punition capital quando ille lo commandava.

Le symbolismo del fasces suggereva fortia per le unitate: un singule baston es facilemente rumpite, durante que le fasce es difficile de romper. Symbolos similar esseva disveloppate per differente movimentos fasciste, pro exemplo, le symbolo del Falange es cinque flechas unite insimul per un jugo.

Definition[modificar | modificar fonte]

Le historicos, scientificos politic e altere eruditos ha debattite le natura exacte del fascismo. Cata gruppo describite como fasciste ha al minus alcun elementos unic e multe definitiones de fascismo ha essite criticate como troppo large o stricte.

According to many scholars, fascism – especially once in power – has historically attacked communism, conservatism, and parliamentary liberalism, attracting support primarily from the far-right.[26]

One common definition of the term, frequently cited by reliable sources as a standard definition, is that of historian Stanley G. Payne. He focuses on three concepts:

the "fascist negations": anti-liberalism, anti-communism, and anti-conservatism; "fascist goals": the creation of a nationalist dictatorship to regulate economic structure and to transform social relations within a modern, self-determined culture, and the expansion of the nation into an empire; and "fascist style": a political aesthetic of romantic symbolism, mass mobilization, a positive view of violence, and promotion of masculinity, youth, and charismatic authoritarian leadership.[27][28][29][30] Historian John Lukacs argues that there is no such thing as generic fascism. He claims that National Socialism and communism are essentially manifestations of populism and that states such as National Socialist Germany and Fascist Italy are more different than similar.[31]

Roger Griffin describes fascism as "a genus of political ideology whose mythic core in its various permutations is a palingenetic form of populist ultranationalism".[32] Griffin describes the ideology as having three core components: "(i) the rebirth myth, (ii) populist ultra-nationalism, and (iii) the myth of decadence".[33] In Griffin's view, Fascism is "a genuinely revolutionary, trans-class form of anti-liberal, and in the last analysis, anti-conservative nationalism" built on a complex range of theoretical and cultural influences. He distinguishes an inter-war period in which it manifested itself in elite-led but populist "armed party" politics opposing socialism and liberalism and promising radical politics to rescue the nation from decadence.[34] In Against the Fascist Creep Alexander Reid Ross writes regarding Griffin's view:

Following the Cold War and shifts in fascist organizing techniques, a number of scholars have moved toward the minimalist "new consensus" refined by Roger Griffin: "the mythic core" of fascism is "a populist form of palingenetic ultranationalism." That means that fascism is an ideology that draws on old, ancient, and even arcane myths of racial, cultural, ethnic, and national origins to develop a plan for the "new man."[35]

Cas Mudde and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser argue that although Fascism "flirted with populism ... in an attempt to generate mass support", is it better seen as an elitist ideology. They cite in particular its exaltation of the Leader, the race, and the state, rather than the people. They see populism as a "thin-centered ideology" with a "restricted morphology" which necessarily becomes attached to "thick-centered" ideologies such as fascism, liberalism, or socialism. Thus populism can be found as an aspect of many specific ideologies, without necessarily being a defining characteristic of those ideologies. They refer to the combination of populism, authoritarianism and ultranationalism as "a marriage of convenience."[36]

Robert Paxton says that fascism is "a form of political behavior marked by obsessive preoccupation with community decline, humiliation, or victimhood and by compensatory cults of unity, energy, and purity, in which a mass-based party of committed nationalist militants, working in uneasy but effective collaboration with traditional elites, abandons democratic liberties and pursues with redemptive violence and without ethical or legal restraints goals of internal cleansing and external expansion".[37]

Roger Eatwell defines fascism as "an ideology that strives to forge social rebirth based on a holistic-national radical Third Way",[38] while Walter Laqueur sees the core tenets of fascism as "self-evident: nationalism; social Darwinism; racialism, the need for leadership, a new aristocracy, and obedience; and the negation of the ideals of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution."[39]

Racism was a key feature of German fascism, for which the Holocaust was a high priority. According to the historiography of genocide, "In dealing with the Holocausto, it is the consensus of historians that Nazi Germany targeted Jews as a race, not as a religious group."[40] Umberto Eco,[41] Kevin Passmore,[42] John Weiss,[43] Ian Adams,[44] and Moyra Grant[45] stress racism as a characteristic component of German fascism. Historian Robert Soucy stated that "Hitler envisioned the ideal German society as a Volksgemeinschaft, a racially unified and hierarchically organized body in which the interests of individuals would be strictly subordinate to those of the nation, or Volk."[46] Fascist philosophies vary by application, but remain distinct by one theoretic commonality. All traditionally fall into the far-right sector of any political spectrum, catalyzed by afflicted class identities over conventional social inequities[4]

Paises con governamentos fasciste[modificar | modificar fonte]

Ligamines external[modificar | modificar fonte]