Testudines

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Testudines
Rango fossile:
Late Jurassic – Present

Classification scientific
Dominio: Eukaryota
Regno: Animalia
Subregno: Bilateria
Phylo: Chordata
Superclasse: Tetrapoda
(sin rango) Amniota
Classe: Sauropsida
Ordine
Testudines
Batsch, 1788[1]
Synonymia
  • Chelonii Latreille 1800
  • Chelonia Ross and Macartney 1802
Blau: marine tortucas; nigre: terrestre
Blau: marine tortucas; nigre: terrestre
Subordines:

Testudines es un ordine de Sauropsida qui contine 14 familias actual de tortucas. Se distribute in duo subordines secundo le movimento del collo pro proteger le capite in le carapace:

Phylogenia[modificar | modificar fonte]

Cladogramma externe[modificar | modificar fonte]

Secundo Crawford et al. (2012)[2] e Gemmell et al. (2020)[3]:

Amniota 
 Synapsida 

 (Mammiferos e mammalian "reptiles")


 Sauropsida 

 Parareptilia


 Sauria 
 Lepidosauria 

 Rhynchocephalia (Sphenodon)



 Squamata (lacertas e serpentes)





 Testudines (tortucas)


 Archosauria 
Crurotarsi

 Crocodilia


 Avemetatarsalia 

 Pterosauria


 Dinosauria 

 Sauropoda † (Diplodocus, Brachiosaurus)


 Theropoda 

 Tyrannosauridae



 Aves











Cladogramma interne[modificar | modificar fonte]

Le phylogenia interne es le sequente:[4][5]

Testudines 
 Pleurodira 


 Pelomedusidae



 Podocnemididae




 Chelidae



 Cryptodira 


 Testudinoidea 

 Testudinidae


 Geoemydidae




 Platysternidae


 Emydidae






 Chelydroidea 

 Chelydridae




 Dermatemydidae



 Kinosternidae




 Chelonioidea
 Dermochelyidae

 


 Cheloniidae





 Trionychia 
 Carettochelyidae


 Trionychidae






Referentias[modificar fonte]

  1. Turtle Taxonomy Working Group (2017). Turtles of the World: Annotated Checklist and Atlas of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status, 8th, Chelonian Research Monographs (no. 1) 7, Chelonian Research Foundation: Turtle Conservancy, 10, 24. doi:10.3854/crm.7.checklist.atlas.v8.2017. ISBN 978-1-5323-5026-9. OCLC 1124067380. 
  2. Crawford, N.G.; Faircloth, B.C.; McCormack, J.E.; Brumfield, R.T.; Winker, K.; Glenn, T.C. More than 1000 ultraconserved elements provide evidence that turtles are the sister group of archosaurs. Biol. Lett. 2012, 8, 783–786.
  3. Gemmell, N.J.; Rutherford, K.; Prost, S.; Tollis, M.; Winter, D.; Macey, J.R.; Adelson, D.L.; Suh, A.; Bertozzi, T.; Grau, J.H.; et al. The tuatara genome reveals ancient features of amniote evolution. Nature 2020, 584, 403–409.
  4. "A Phylogenomic Analysis of Turtles" (2015). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 83: 250–257. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.10.021. ISSN 1055-7903. PMID 25450099. 
  5. "A Global Phylogeny of Turtles Reveals a Burst of Climate-associated Diversification on Continental Margins" (February 8, 2021). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 118 (7). doi:10.1073/pnas.2012215118. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 33558231. Bibcode2021PNAS..11812215T.