Thermodynamica

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Annotate version color del original 1824 motor caloric de Carnot monstrar le corpore calide (caldiera), corpore laborante (systema, vapor), e corpore frigide (aqua), le literas etiquettate conforme al punctos stoppante in le cyclo de Carnot.

Thermodynamica es un scientia physic e un campo de physica que studia le effectos sur corpores material, e sur radiation in regiones de spatio, de transferimento caloric e de travalio exeque sur o causa per le corpores o radiation. Illo variabiles macroscopic interconnexe, tal como temperatura, volumine, e pression, que describe proprietates physic de corpores material e radiation, appellate in iste scientia systemas thermodynamic.

Historicamente, thermodynamica disveloppa ab un desiro de accrescer le efficientia del prime machinas de vapor, particularmente per le effortios de physico francese Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1824) qui credeva que le efficientia de motores caloric esseva le clave que poterea adjutar Francia vince le Guerras Napoleonic. [1] Physico scotese Lord Kelvin esseva primo de formulate un definition concise de thermodynamica in 1854: [2]

Thermo-dynamica es le subjecto del relation de calor a fortias agente inter contigue partes de corpores, e le relation de calor a agentia electric.

Initialmente, le thermodynamica de motores caloric concerneva primemente le proprietates thermic de lor 'materiales laborante', tal como vapor. Iste concernimento esseva tunc ligante al studio de transferimentos energic in processos chimic, pro exemplo al investigation, publicava in 1840, del calores de reactiones chimic [3] per Germain Hess, que non esseva originalmente concernite explicitemente con le relation inter excambios energic de calor e travalio. Thermodynamica chimic studia le rolo de entropia in reactiones chimic. [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] Anque, thermodynamica statistic, o mechanica statistic, da explanationes de thermodynamica macroscopic per predictiones statistic del motion collective del particulas basate sur le mechanica de lor comportamento microscopic.

Thermodynamica describe como systemas muta quando illos interage con un altere o con lor ambiente. Isto pote esser applicate a un varietate large de topicos in scientia e ingenieria, tal como ingenios, transitiones phasic, reactiones chimic, phenomenos transportal, e vere cavos nigre. Le resultatos de thermodynamica es essential pro altere campos de physica e pro chimia, ingeniera chimic, ingeniera aerospatial, ingeniera mechanic, biologia cellular, ingeniera biomedic, scientia de materiales, e es util pro altere campos tal como economica. [11] [12]

Multe del factos empiric de thermodynamica es comprendite in su quatro leges. Le lege prime specifica que energia pote esser excambiate inter systemas physic como calor e travalio thermodynamic. [13] Le lege secunde concerne un quantitate appellate entropia, que exprime limitationes, provenir ab que es sapite como irreversibilitate, sur le amonta de travalio thermodynamic que pote esser liverate a un systema externe per un processo thermodynamic. [14] Multe scriptores offere varie enunciatos axiomatic de thermodynamica, como si illo esseva un subjecto clause, sed processos nonequilibrial continua de facer difficultates pro lo.

Vide etiam[modificar | modificar fonte]

Referentias[modificar | modificar fonte]

  1. Rudolf Clausius, On the Motive Power of Heat, and on the Laws which can be deduced from it for the Theory of Heat (Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik, LXXIX (Dover Reprint), 1850) ISBN = 0-486-59065-8
  2. Sir William Thomson, Mathematical and Physical Papers, London and Cambridge, 1882, Volume 1, p. 232
  3. Hess, H. (1840). Thermochemische Untersuchungen, Annalen der Physik und Chemie (Poggendorff, Leipzig) 126(6): 385-404 [1].
  4. Gibbs, Willard, J. (1876). Transactions of the Connecticut Academy, III, pp. 108-248, Oct. 1875-May 1876, e pp. 343-524, May 1877-July 1878.
  5. Duhem, P.M.M. (1886). Le Potential Thermodynamique et ses Applications, Hermann, Paris.
  6. Lewis, Gilbert N., Randall, Merle (1923). Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical Substances, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc.
  7. Guggenheim, E.A. (1933). Modern Thermodynamics by the Methods of J.W. Gibbs, Methuen, London.
  8. Guggenheim, E.A. (1949/1967). Thermodynamics. An Advanced Treatment for Chemists and Physicists, 1st edition 1949, 5th edition 1967, North-Holland, Amsterdam.
  9. Ilya Prigogine, I. e Defay, R., translated by D.H. Everett (1954). Chemical Thermodynamics, Longmans, Green e Co., London.
  10. Fermi, Enrico (1956), Thermodynamics, Courier Dover Publications, http://books.google.com/?id=VEZ1ljsT3IwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=thermodynamics
  11. Smith, J.M., Van Ness, H.C., Abbott, M.M. (2005). Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, McGraw Hill, ISBN 0-07-310445-0
  12. Haynie, Donald, T. (2001). Biological Thermodynamics, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-79549-4
  13. Van Ness, H.C. (1983). Understanding Thermodynamics, Dover Publications, Inc., ISBN 978-0-486-63277-3
  14. Dugdale, J.S. (1998). Entropy and its Physical Meaning, Taylor e Francis, ISBN 0-7484-0569-0
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