Judaismo hasidic

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Homines hasidic in New York, 2006

Le Judaismo hasidic o hasidismo (in hebreo חסידים, khasidut: "pietismo"; khasid, significa "piedoso"),[1][2] es un movimento de Judaismo ultra-orthodoxe e ashkenazic que differe de altere formas de practica judee proque illo es organisate in gruppos appellate dinastias hasidic, governate per rabbis cuje dominio es heredetari in lor familias. Le rabino governante de cata gruppo es considerate un tsadik ("juste"), qui es viste como un intermediario inter personas human e Deo (contra del puncto de vista judee commun, in le qual le individuos ha un relation directe con Deo sin intermediario).[2][3][4] Iste lider rabbinic hereditari es appellate le rebbe o admor.[5][6]

Hasidismo da emphasis a allegria religiose.[7][8][9]

Historia[modificar | modificar fonte]

Le movimento hasidic surgiva in le seculo 18 in reaction al violentia physic externe e al perturbationes spiritual interne que affligeva le judeos de Europa Oriental in le generationes anterior, specialmente le massacros de judeos por le fortias de Bohdan Khmelnytsky in 1648 e le collapso del autoproclamate messia Sabbatai Zevi in 1666.[7][8][9]

Le hasidismo evolveva in le prime medietate del seculo 18 in Europa Oriental, in reaction al Judaismo legalista e intellectualisate, per le rabbi Israel ben Eliezer, un mystico, curandero, scripture de amuletos[10][11][12] e shaman[13][14][15] plus ben cognoscite como le Baal Shem Tov (significante "Domino del Bon Nomine"), o per le abbreviation Besht.[8][16]

Post le morte del Baal Shem Tov in 1760 ille era succedite como lider del hasidim per Dov Ber de Mezeritch, cognoscite comole Maggid ("sermonator") de Mezeritch, un rabbi con formation academic traditional que poneva le hasidismo in un basis plus traditionalmente erudite e inviava su adherentes per Europa Oriental, expandindo amplemente le hasidismo.[3][17][18][19]

Post le morte de Dov Ber in 1772, le commando del movimento hasidic era dividite inter differente rabbis, considerate possessores de qualitates hereditari special, poniente les plus proxime a Deo. Iste se tornava le fundatores de dynastias hereditari (rebbes) qui era appellate tsaddikim (singular: tsaddik), significante "juste"[3][2] o "provate."[20]

Le rebbes manteneva le cortes inter su adherentes,[2][21][22] cuje reverentia para le lideres dynastic multe vices attingeva le nivello de obsession superstitiose para su rebbe, usque mesme le detalios personal de su vita[2] como le maniera como le rebbe acordonava su calceos.[4] Isse tradition permitteva, in le pejor casos, rebbes qui era simplemente opportunistas corrupte.[21][22]

In le decadas final del seculo 18, le hasidim era fortemente condemnate per su opponentes, cognoscite como misnagdim (que significa literalmente "opponentes"), qui era liderate per le Vilna Gaon. Iste judeos anti-hasidic se opponeva tan violentemente al hasidim que al vices denunciava lor rebbes al governo tsarist anti-semitic sub false accusationes, incluinte subversion, spionage e traition. Le rebbes hasidic imprisionate por le governo post denuncias de lor opponentes le misnagdim inclue Shneur Zalman de Liadi, le prime rebbe del dinastia Chabad Lubavitch, e Asher Perlov del dinastia Karlin-Stolin.[23]

Ben que le hasidim e misnagdim remane distincte, durante le seculo 19 le hostilitate inter illes quasi disappareceva[24] porque illes habeva in commun lor opposition unite al crescente fortias de secularismo e del Haskala, le Illuminismo Judee.[25][23]

Vide etiam[modificar | modificar fonte]

Referentias[modificar | modificar fonte]

  1. https://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/7317-hasidim-hasidism:
    "In its literal meaning the word "Ḥasidism" is identical with "pietism" ("Ḥasid" = "the pious")"
    ("In su significantia literal, le parola "Ḥasidismo" es identical a "pietismo" ("Ḥasid" = "le pietose")")
  2. 2,0 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,4 Solomon Grayzel, A History of the Jews, The Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 1968, pp. 527-528:
    "Tzaddikism — The weakest spot in the teachings of the Besht and the Maggid turned out to be their advocacy of a personal leadership. Judaism had never known of an intermediary between God and man... The masses of southeastern Europe, however, were... so convinced of the ability of some people to prophesy and work miracles, that they grasped at this notion of spiritual leadership. The pupils of the Maggid and the descendants of the Besht were therefore accepted as leaders... Such men came to be known as tzaddikim (singular—tzaddik), or 'righteous men.' They held court and... formed the center of the people's social life... The next step was... to assume that the special favor which a tsaddik enjoyed with God was due, not so much to his learning and piety, as to his person. A tsaddik, moreover, was considered able to transmit his standing and ability to his son or another member of his family; and, as a result, regular dynasties of tsaddikim came into being, some of them laying to this day... the followers of the tsaddikim were known as hasidim (singular—hasid). The word hasid means 'pious man' "
  3. 3,0 3,1 3,2 Cecil Roth, A History of the Jews: From Earliest Times Through the Six Day War, Schocken Books, New York, © 1961, revisado 1970, p. 314:
    "After the founder's death, the conception arose of the presence, in a few chosen families, of special merits which passed down by hereditary right from one Zadik, or Righteous One, to another, all able to act as intermediaries between man and God. Dob Baer, of Mezdyrzecz (1710-1772), adapted the new doctrines to the taste of the more scholarly elements, among whom it henceforth began to make increasing headway."
    ("Post le morte del fundator, le conception surgiva del presentia, en alcun familias elegite, de meritos special que passava per derecto hereditari de un Zadik, o Juste, para altere, totes capabile de actar como intermediarios inter le homine e Deo. Dov Baer, de Mezdyrzecz (1710-1772), adaptava le nove doctrinas al gusto del elementos plus erudite, inter le quales passava a facer progresso crescente.")
  4. 4,0 4,1 Laconia Cohn-Sherbok, A History of Jewish Civilization, Chartwell Books, Edison, New Jersey, 1997, p. 137:
    "The movement quickly split between the followers of particular Zaddikim. Each group maintained their Zaddik in a court, and some Zaddikim lived in considerable opulence. Even today members of Hasidic sects visit their Zaddik and observe his behavior as a pattern to be followed. For example, there is a famous anecdote about a disciple of the Maggid of Mezhirech who went to see his master not to learn about Jewish law, nor to receive his blessing, but to observe how he tied his shoes!"
  5. https://yivoencyclopedia.org/article.aspx/Hasidism/Historical_Overview:
    "Each such group was headed by a tsadik (also known as rebbe or admor [Hebrew acronym for 'our master, our teacher, and our rabbi'])"
    ("Cata un de isse gruppos era liderate por un tsadik (alsi cognoscite como rebbe o admor [le acronymo in hebreo: 'nostre domino, nostre instructor e nostre rabbi']")
  6. Laconia Cohn-Sherbok, A History of Jewish Civilization, Chartwell Books, Edison, New Jersey, 1997, p. 137:
    "The Zaddik is now generally called rebbe (teacher) or, in Israel, admor, (an acrostic meaning, our Lord, our teacher, our rabbi).
    ("Le Zaddik nunc es generalmente appellate rebbe (instructor) o, in Israel, admor, (un acrostico significante nostre Domino, nostre instructor, nosso rabino)")
  7. 7,0 7,1 Harry Gersh, The Sacred Books of the Jews, 1968, Stein and Day, New York, p. 151:
    "the eighteenth- and nineteenth- century Chasidim. Israel of Medjiboz, 1700-1760, the Baal Shem Tov (Master of the Good Name), founded this revivalist movement when Eastern European Jewry was at its lowest ebb. The Jews had virtually been wiped out physically by the Cossack Chmielnicki in the middle of the seventeenth century; they were emotionally and spiritually drained by the collapse of the False Messiah, Sabbatai Zevi, and the formerly uneasy tolerance of their regional lords had hardened into active persecution. By stressing the importance of prayer over learning, of joy in God's works and gifts over asceticism, the Baal Shem Tov gave the miserable Jews a religion of song and dancing, of general optimism and ecstatic religious experience."
  8. 8,0 8,1 8,2 The Jewish Almanac, Richard Siegel e Carl Rheins, compilatores e redactores, Bantam Books, New York, 1980, p. 24::
    "'Hasidism'... arose in Poland, Russia, and Austria-Hungary in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries... The late seventeenth century witnessed great spiritual and political turmoil for Eastern European Jews. Events such as the massacres of Jewry in the Ukraine in 1648, the abortive messianic movement of the deranged Turkish Jewish mystic Shabbatai Zevi in 1666, and the end of the monarchy in Poland resulted in confusion, despair and considerable political and economic dislocation. As rabbinic authority began to crumble and the spiritual crisis... deepened these Jews found themselves badly in need of leadership. The... founder of Hasidism, was Israel ben Eliezer, known as the Baal Shem Tov (or 'Besht' for short)... who stressed... the importance of serving God in joy and of 'uplifting the sparks' of holiness found everywhere in one's daily life. This style represented [a]n alternative both to the more somber, ascetic piety of the mystics of the time, and to the... scholarly pedantry valued in the rabinnical courts."
  9. 9,0 9,1 Laconia Cohn-Sherbok, A History of Jewish Civilization, Chartwell Books, Edison, New Jersey, 1997, p. 136:
    "Hasidism After the horrors of the Chmielnicki massacres and the debacle of Shabtai Zevi the false Messiah, the Jewish villages of Eastern Europe turned to a new religious movement. Its founder was Israel ben Eliezer (c. 1700-1760) who was known as the Baal Shem Tov (the Master of the Good Name), or the Besht... His emphasis was always on the joy of serving God"
    ("Hasidismo "Post le horrores del massacros de Chmielnicki e le collapso de Shabtai Zevi, le false Messia, le villages judee de Europa Oriental tornava a un nove movimento religiose. Su fundator era Israel ben Eliezer (c. 1700-1760), cognoscite como le Baal Shem Tov (o Mestre do Bom Nome), o le Besht... Su emphasis semper era in le allegria de servir Deo")
  10. (anglese) John M. Efron, Medicine and the German Jews: A History, Yale University Press, p. 91:
    "Israel ben Eliezer Baal Shem-Tov (1700–1760), the founder of Hasidism, was in fact a faith healer and amulet writer"
    ("Israel ben Eliezer Baal Shem-Tov (1700-1760), le fundator de hasidismo, era de facto un curandero e scriba de amuletos")
  11. (portugese) "Yeshivá Colegial Machané Israel de Petrópolis: dos pergaminhos judaicos à primeira escola rabínica brasileira" Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Vanessa dos Santos Novais, Tese- Rio de Janeiro 2022: "Seus estudos também contemplaram questões sobre o conhecimento e a ação das propriedades fitoterápicas das plantas, e sua subsistência provinha da assistência que prestava à comunidade no papel de curandeiro. Ele também se ocupava da venda de poções mágicas que afastavam demônios, denominadas segulot, e de amuletos escritos para casas ou kamio’ot, os quais pretendiam afastar os maus espíritos."
  12. (anglese) https://www.worldhistory.org/Kabbalah/
    "Hasidism or Hasidic Judaism was ostensibly founded by an 18th-century CE itinerant mystic and faith-healer who came to be called the Baal Shem Tov"
    ("Le hasidismo o Judaismo Hasidic era ostensibilemente fundate per un mystico e curandero itinerante del seculo 18 CE que veniva a ser appellate le Baal Shem Tov")
  13. (anglese) https://yivoencyclopedia.org/article.aspx/baal_shem_tov:
    "(Yisra’el ben Eli‘ezer, 'the Besht'; ca. 1700–1760), healer, miracle worker, and religious mystic... founder of the modern Hasidic movement... in the 1730s, Yisra’el began using the title ba‘al shem or ba‘al shem tov (... meaning that he was a 'master of God’s name,' which he could manipulate for theurgic purposes), denoting his skills as a healer—one Polish source refers to him as ba‘al shem doctor—and his general qualifications as a shaman, a figure who could mediate between this world and the divine spheres in an effort to help people solve their... problems."
    ("(Yisra'el ben Eli'ezer, "le Besht"; ca. 1700–1760), curandero, thaumaturgo e mystico religiose... fundator del modern movimento hasidic... in le decada de 1730, Yisra'el comenciava a usar le titulo ba'al shem o.ba'al shem tov (... significante que ille era un 'domino de nomine de Deo', que le poteva manipular para propositos theurgic), denotante su habilitates como curator - un fonte polonese le refere como "ba'al shem medico" - e su qualificationes general como shaman, un figura que poteva mediar inter iste mundo e le spheras divin in un effortio para ajutar le personas a resolver su... problemas.")
  14. https://www.tabletmag.com/sections/news/articles/psychedelic-summit-madison-margolin:
    "The Baal Shem Tov, himself, the father of the Hasidic movement, was said to be a medicine man, an herbalist, and shaman of sorts, who would go around with his enchanted pipe, providing healing to people."
    ("Le proprie Baal Shem Tov, le patre del movimento hasidic, era considerate un curandero, un herborista e un specie de shaman, que vagava con su pipa encantate, curante le populo.")
  15. https://hebrewcollege.edu/blog/hebrew-college-pilgrimage-to-ukraine:
    "Le Baal Shem Tov, un lider spiritual e shaman"
    ((anglese): "The Baal Shem Tov, a spiritual teacher and shaman")
  16. Leo Rosten, The Joys of Yiddish, © 1968; edition de Pocket Books, 1970, p. 73
    "The extraordinary Chasidic movement, opposed by many rabbis and pietists... was founded by a simple man, a mystic, named Israel ben Eliezer (later called the Baal Shem Tov), who... opposed the rabinnical emphasis on formal learning, and derogated the endless Talmudic casuistry of the wise men."
  17. The Jewish Almanac, Richard Siegel e Carl Rheins, compilatores e redactores, Bantam Books, New York, 1980, p. 24:
    "The Besht's successor was Dov Baer, the Maggid ("Preacher") of Mezritch, who had come to Hasidism from a learned rabbinical career. Dov Baer... raised a generation of disciples, who spread out through Eastern Europe... so successfully that by 1814, when the last of these disciples died, the majority of Eastern European Jewry could be counted as adherents to Hasidism."
  18. Paul Kriwaczek, Yiddish Civilisation, Vintage Books, (un division de Random House), © 2005, p. 263:
    "After Israel ben Eliezer died in 1760... leadership fell to Dov Baer, known as the Great Moggid (Preacher) of the town of Mezhirech... the Great Moggid sent out missionaries among the Jews of the south-east, attracting many rabbis and scholars to the movement."
  19. Solomon Grayzel, A History of the Jews, The Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 1968, p. 527:
    "The Maggid of Meseritch—One of the disciples won by the Besht in his late years was Rabbi Ber, a learned man... Being more scholarly than the Besht had been, the Maggid was able to provide the Besht's religious writings with a further foundation in traditional Jewish learning... His chief contribution was the training of a number of men who... became the leaders of the next generation."
  20. Martin Buber, Tales of the Hasidim: The Early Years (traducite per Olga Marx, Schocken Books, New York, ©1947 & 1975, p. 1:
    "The men who are the subject of these tales... are the zaddikim, a term which is usually translated by 'the righteous,' but which actually means 'those who stood the test' or 'the proven.' They are the leaders of the hasidic communities"
    ("Le homines qui son le thema de isse historias... son le zaddikim, un termine que generalmente es traducite per 'le juste', ma que in veritate significa "illes qui resisteva al testo' o 'le provate'. Illes son le lideres del communitates hasidic")
  21. 21,0 21,1 Paul Kriwaczek, Yiddish Civilisation, Vintage Books, (uma divisão de Random House), © 2005, pp. 248-249:
    "Rebbe... Elimelech ben Eliezer Lipmann Weissblum... describes the Tsaddik as... transforming evil into good and the mundane into the holy for all his community... he and his entourage must be released from all earthly cares by the financial support of their followers who... pay him 'ransoms'... As may easily be imagined, this principle was rather prone to corruption, particularly as being a Tsaddik soon became a hereditary occupation—and, indeed, something of a racket—in the curso of the nineteenth century. The Tsaddik reigned over a 'court' that included his family, his associates, his assistants, numerous hangers-on and... Chassidic acolytes, leading to huge expenses."
    ("Rebbe... Elimelech ben Eliezer Lipmann Weissblum... describe le Tsadik como un homine... transformante le mal in bon e le mundan in sacrate para tote su comunitate... Ille e su associatos debe ser libertate de tote le mundan cargas con le appoio financial de su adherentes qui... paga a ille 'redemptiones'... Como pote ser facilmentte, iste principio era bastante propense al corruption, particularmente porque ser ub Tsaddik logo deveniva un occupation hereditari - e, de facto, un specie de organisation criminal - in le curso del seculo 19. Le Tsadik regnava super un 'corte' que includeva su familia, su associatos, su assistentes, numerose parasitas e... visitante acolytos hasidic, causante enorme expensas.")
  22. 22,0 22,1 Solomon Grayzel, A History of the Jews, The Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 1968, p. 533:
    "there were among the tsaddikim, or rebbes... some whose chief function was 'miracle-working.' They developed a court about themselves and lived off the fat of the land from the contributions of their poor adherents. These were the men who gave Hasidism a bad reputation"
  23. 23,0 23,1 https://yivoencyclopedia.org/article.aspx/misnagdim
  24. Cecil Roth, A History of the Jews: From Earliest Times Through the Six Day War, Schocken Books, New York, © 1961, revisate 1970, p. 315
  25. Laconia Cohn-Sherbok, A History of Jewish Civilization, Chartwell Books, Edison, New Jersey, 1997, p. 140-141