Internet del objectos

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Le Internet del Objectos (IdO) es un systema de apparatos computante interrelatate, machinas mechanic e digital, objectos, animales o personas que es dotate de identificatores (UID) unic e le capacitate de transferer datos super un rete sin besonia de interaction human-a-human o human-a-computator.

Le definition de Internet del Objectos ha evolvite per le convergentia de plure technologias, analyse datos real-time, apprendimento automatic, commoditate sensores e systema(s) integrate.[1] Campos traditional de systema(s) integrate, rete(s) de sensores sin filo, systema(s) de controlo, automation (anque le domotica e le automation de edificio) e alteros, tote collabora al activation de Internet de Objectos

Historia[modificar | modificar fonte]

Le concepto de un rete de apparatos intelligente ha essite discutite desde 1982, con un distributor automatic de Coke modificate al Universitate Carnegie Mellon, que deveniva le prime apparato connexe a internet,[2] capace a signalar su inventario e si le bibitas justo cargate era o non frigide.[3]Documento del 1991 de Mark Weiser sur le apparatos computante ubique, "The Computer of the 21st Century", e sedes academic tal como UbiComp e PerCom ha producite le vision contemporanee del IdO.[4][5] In 1994, Reza Raji ha describite le concepto in IEEE Spectrum como "[displaciamento] de micre pacchettos de datos a un grande collection de nodos, in maniera de integrar e automatisar toto, ab le articulos de menage al integre fabricas".[6] Inter 1993 e 1997, plure companias ha proponite solutiones como at Work per Microsoft o NEST per Novell.

Applicationes[modificar | modificar fonte]

File:Nest Apprender Thermostat (retaliate).JPG
Un Nest apprender thermostat reporto de active energia uso e conditiones meteorologic local
File:Anello video doorbell.jpg
Un Anello doorbell connexe a internet
File:Augusto 2nd-gen intelligente lock.jpg
Un augusto Casa intelligente blocar connexe a internet

Le extensive configura de applicationes pro IoT apparatos es frequentemente dividite en spatios pro consummator, commercial, industrial e de infrastructura.

Applicationes pro consummatores[modificar | modificar fonte]

Un parte crescente del apparatos IdO es create pro usos del consummatores, assi como pro le connexivitate del vehiculos, le domotica, le technologia vestibile, connexivitate del salute e apparatos de telesurveliantia. [7]

Casa intelligente[modificar | modificar fonte]

Le apparatos IdO es un parte del plus grande concepto de automation de casa, que pote includer illumination, calefaction e climatisation, medios e systemas de securitate.[8][9] Beneficios a longe-tempore poterea includer le sparnio de energia per assecurar que automaticamente luce e electronica es extinguite.

Un casa intelligente o automatisate poterea esser basate sur un platteforma o cardines que controla objectos e apparatos intelligente.[10] Per exemplo, que usa HomeKit deApple manufacturers can have their home products and accessories controlled by an application in iOS devices such as the iPhone and the Apple Watch.[11][12] This could be a dedicated app or iOS native applications such as Siri.[13] This can be demonstrated in the case of Lenovo's Smart Home Essentials, which is a line of smart home devices that are controlled through Apple's Home app or Siri without the need for a Wi-Fi bridge.[13] There are also dedicated smart home hubs that are offered as standalone platforms to connect different smart home products and these include the Amazon Echo, Google Home, Apple's HomePod, and Samsung's SmartThings Hub.[14] In addition to the commercial systems, there are many non-proprietary, open source ecosystems; including Home Assistant, OpenHAB and Domoticz.[15][16]

Assistentia al seniores[modificar | modificar fonte]

Un application clave de un casa intelligente es fornir assistentia pro personas con invaliditate o ancian.These home systems use assistive technology to accommodate an owner's specific disabilities.[17] Voice control can assist users with sight and mobility limitations while alert systems can be connected directly to cochlear implants worn by hearing-impaired users.[18] They can also be equipped with additional safety features. These features can include sensors that monitor for medical emergencies such as falls or seizures.[19] Smart home technology applied in this way can provide users with more freedom and a higher quality of life.[17]

The term "Enterprise IoT" refers to devices used in business and corporate settings. By 2019, it is estimated that the EIoT will account for 9.1 billion devices.[20]


Applicationes commercial[modificar | modificar fonte]

Medic e cura del sanitate[modificar | modificar fonte]

Le Internet de Objectos Medic (IdOM), (alsi appellate le internet del objectos del salute), es un application del IdO pro propositos correlate medic e de salute, le collection de datos e analyse pro recerca e surveliantia.


</ref> Internet-of-things devices additionally will benefit from the stateless address auto-configuration present in IPv6,[21] as it reduces the configuration overhead on the hosts,[22] and the IETF 6LoWPAN header compression. To a large extent, the future of the Internet of things will not be possible without the support of IPv6; and consequently, the global adoption of IPv6 in the coming years will be critical for the successful development of the IoT in the future.[23]

Application Layer[modificar | modificar fonte]

  • ADRC [24] defines an application layer protocol and supporting framework for implementing IoT applications.

Short-range wireless[modificar | modificar fonte]

Medium-range wireless[modificar | modificar fonte]

  • LTE-Advanced – High-speed communication specification for mobile networks. Provides enhancements to the LTE standard with extended coverage, higher throughput, and lower latency.
  • 5G - 5G wireless networks can be used to achieve the high communication requirements of the IoT and connect a large number of IoT devices, even when they are on the move.[25]

Long-range wireless[modificar | modificar fonte]

Wired[modificar | modificar fonte]

Standards and standards organizations[modificar | modificar fonte]

Patrono:Expand section This is a list of technical standards for the IoT, most of which are open standards, and the standards organizations that aspire to successfully setting them.[26][27]

Short name Long name Standards under development Other notes
Auto-ID Labs Auto Identification Center Networked RFID (radiofrequency identification) and emerging sensing technologies
EPCglobal Electronic Product code Technology Standards for adoption of EPC (Electronic Product Code) technology
FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration UDI (Unique Device Identification) system for distinct identifiers for medical devices
GS1 Global Standards One Standards for UIDs ("unique" identifiers) and RFID of fast-moving consumer goods (consumer packaged goods), health care supplies, and other things Parent organization comprises member organizations such as GS1 US
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Underlying communication technology standards such as IEEE 802.15.4, IEEE P1451-99 (IoT Harmonization), and IEEE P1931.1 (ROOF Computing).
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force Standards that comprise TCP/IP (the Internet protocol suite)
MTConnect Institute MTConnect is a manufacturing industry standard for data exchange with machine tools and related industrial equipment. It is important to the IIoT subset of the IoT.
O-DF Open Data Format O-DF is a standard published by the Internet of Things Work Group of The Open Group in 2014, which specifies a generic information model structure that is meant to be applicable for describing any "Thing", as well as for publishing, updating and querying information when used together with O-MI (Open Messaging Interface).
O-MI Open Messaging Interface O-MI is a standard published by the Internet of Things Work Group of The Open Group in 2014, which specifies a limited set of key operations needed in IoT systems, notably different kinds of subscription mechanisms based on the Observer pattern.
OCF Open Connectivity Foundation Standards for simple devices using CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol) OCF (Open Connectivity Foundation) supersedes OIC (Open Interconnect Consortium)
OMA Open Mobile Alliance OMA DM and OMA LWM2M for IoT device management, as well as GotAPI, which provides a secure framework for IoT applications
XSF XMPP Standards Foundation Protocol extensions of XMPP (Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol), the open standard of instant messaging

Government regulation on IoT[modificar | modificar fonte]

One of the key drivers of the IoT is data. The success of the idea of connecting devices to make them more efficient is dependent upon access to and storage & processing of data. For this purpose, companies working on the IoT collect data from multiple sources and store it in their cloud network for further processing. This leaves the door wide open for privacy and security dangers and single point vulnerability of multiple systems.[28] The other issues pertain to consumer choice and ownership of data[29] and how it is used. Though still in their infancy, regulations and governance regarding these issues of privacy, security, and data ownership continue to develop.[30][31][32] IoT regulation depends on the country. Some examples of legislation that is relevant to privacy and data collection are: the US Privacy Act of 1974, OECD Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flows of Personal Data of 1980, and the EU Directive 95/46/EC of 1995.[33]

Current regulatory environment:

A report published by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in January 2015 made the following three recommendations:[34]

  • Data security – At the time of designing IoT companies should ensure that data collection, storage and processing would be secure at all times. Companies should adopt a "defence in depth" approach and encrypt data at each stage.[35]
  • Data consent – users should have a choice as to what data they share with IoT companies and the users must be informed if their data gets exposed.
  • Data minimization – IoT companies should collect only the data they need and retain the collected information only for a limited time.

However, the FTC stopped at just making recommendations for now. According to an FTC analysis, the existing framework, consisting of the FTC Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, and the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act, along with developing consumer education and business guidance, participation in multi-stakeholder efforts and advocacy to other agencies at the federal, state and local level, is sufficient to protect consumer rights.[36]

A resolution passed by the Senate in March 2015, is already being considered by the Congress.[37] This resolution recognized the need for formulating a National Policy on IoT and the matter of privacy, security and spectrum. Furthermore, to provide an impetus to the IoT ecosystem, in March 2016, a bipartisan group of four Senators proposed a bill, The Developing Innovation and Growing the Internet of Things (DIGIT) Act, to direct the Federal Communications Commission to assess the need for more spectrum to connect IoT devices.

Approved on 28 September 2018, Senate Bill No. 327[38] goes into effect on 1 January 2020. The bill requires "a manufacturer of a connected device, as those terms are defined, to equip the device with a reasonable security feature or features that are appropriate to the nature and function of the device, appropriate to the information it may collect, contain, or transmit, and designed to protect the device and any information contained therein from unauthorized access, destruction, use, modification, or disclosure,"

Several standards for the IoT industry are actually being established relating to automobiles because most concerns arising from use of connected cars apply to healthcare devices as well. In fact, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is preparing cybersecurity guidelines and a database of best practices to make automotive computer systems more secure.[39]

A recent report from the World Bank examines the challenges and opportunities in government adoption of IoT.[40] These include –

  • Still early days for the IoT in government 
  • Underdeveloped policy and regulatory frameworks 
  • Unclear business models, despite strong value proposition 
  • Clear institutional and capacity gap in government AND the private sector 
  • Inconsistent data valuation and management 
  • Infrastructure a major barrier 
  • Government as an enabler 
  • Most successful pilots share common characteristics (public-private partnership, local, leadership)

See also[modificar | modificar fonte]

Patrono:Colbegin

Patrono:Colend

References[modificar | modificar fonte]

  1. nomine="Linux Objectos"
  2. The "Only" Coke Machine on the Internet. Recuperate le 10 November 2014.
  3. "Internet of Things Done Wrong Stifles Innovation" (7 July 2014). InformationWeek. Recuperate le 10 November 2014. 
  4. "From the Internet of Computer to the Internet of Things" (2010). Informatik-Spektrum 33 (2): 107–121. doi:10.1007/s00287-010-0417-7. Bibcode2009InfSp..32..496H. Recuperate le 3 February 2014. 
  5. Weiser, Mark (1991). "The Computer for the 21st Century". Scientific American 265 (3): 94–104. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0991-94. Bibcode1991SciAm.265c..94W. Recuperate le 5 November 2014. 
  6. "Smart networks for control" (1994). IEEE Spectrum 31 (6): 49–55. doi:10.1109/6.284793. 
  7. "How IoT's are Changing the Fundamentals of "Retailing"", Trak.in – Indian Business of Tech, Mobile & Startups (30 August 2016). Recuperate le 2 June 2017. 
  8. "An enhanced security framework for home appliances in smart home" (5 March 2017). Human-centric Computing and Information Sciences 7 (6). doi:10.1186/s13673-017-0087-4. 
  9. "How IoT & smart home automation will change the way we live", Business Insider. Recuperate le 10 November 2017. 
  10. Greengard, Samuel (2015). The Internet of Things. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 90. ISBN 9780262527736. 
  11. Inc., Apple. HomeKit – Apple Developer (anglese).
  12. Wollerton, Megan (3 June 2018). "Here's everything you need to know about Apple HomeKit" (in en), CNET. 
  13. 13,0 13,1 Lovejoy, Ben (31 August 2018). "HomeKit devices getting more affordable as Lenovo announces Smart Home Essentials line" (in en-US), 9to5Mac. 
  14. Prospero, Mike (12 September 2018). "Best Smart Home Hubs of 2018" (in en), Tom's Guide. 
  15. "What Smart Home IoT Platform Should You Use?", Hacker Noon (26 November 2018). Recuperate le 13 May 2019. 
  16. "6 open source home automation tools", opensource.com (14 December 2017). Recuperate le 13 May 2019. 
  17. 17,0 17,1 "Technologies for an Aging Society: A Systematic Review of 'Smart Home' Applications" (2008). IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics 2008: 33–40. Recuperate le 27 October 2017. 
  18. (10 May 2016) Configurable ZigBee-based control system for people with multiple disabilities in smart homes, 1–5. doi:10.1109/ICCSII.2016.7462435. ISBN 978-1-4673-8743-9. 
  19. "Views of Caregivers on the Ethics of Assistive Technology Used for Home Surveillance of People Living with Dementia" (14 December 2017). Neuroethics 10 (2): 255–266. doi:10.1007/s12152-017-9305-z. PMID 28725288. PMC:5486509. 
  20. Error de citation: Etiquetta <ref> invalide; nulle texto esseva fornite pro le refs nominate Business Insider
  21. Patrono:Cite IETF
  22. Error de citation: Etiquetta <ref> invalide; nulle texto esseva fornite pro le refs nominate 6LoWPAN
  23. Error de citation: Etiquetta <ref> invalide; nulle texto esseva fornite pro le refs nominate computerworld.com
  24. Xped Limited, ADRC Overview", from Wikipedia
  25. Alsulami, M. M. (April 2018). "The role of 5G wireless networks in the internet-of- things (IoT)". 2018 1st International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS): 1–8. doi:10.1109/CAIS.2018.8471687. 
  26. Jing, J. (2012). "Research on the Relevant Standards of Internet of Things", in Wang, Y.: Internet of Things: International Workshop, IOT 2012. Springer, 627–32. ISBN 9783642324277. 
  27. Mahmood, Z. (2018). [[[:Patrono:Google books]] Connected Environments for the Internet of Things: Challenges and Solutions]. Springer, 89–90. ISBN 9783319701028. 
  28. The Internet of Things: Guidance, Regulation and the Canadian Approach. CyberLex (24 November 2015). Recuperate le 23 October 2016.
  29. The Question of Who Owns the Data Is About to Get a Lot Trickier. Fortune (6 April 2016). Recuperate le 23 October 2016.
  30. Weber, R.H. (2010). [[[:Patrono:Google books]] Internet of Things: Legal Perspectives]. Springer Science & Business Media, 59–64. ISBN 9783642117107. 
  31. Hassan, Q.F. (2018). [[[:Patrono:Google books]] Internet of Things A to Z: Technologies and Applications]. John Wiley & Sons, 41–4. ISBN 9781119456759. 
  32. Hassan, Q.F. (2017). [[[:Patrono:Google books]] Internet of Things: Challenges, Advances, and Applications]. CRC Press, 41–2. ISBN 9781498778534. 
  33. Lopez, Javier (2017). "Evolving privacy: From sensors to the Internet of Things". Future Generation Computer Systems 75: 46–57. doi:10.1016/j.future.2017.04.045. 
  34. The 'Internet of Things': Legal Challenges in an Ultra-connected World. Mason Hayes & Curran (22 January 2016). Recuperate le 23 October 2016.
  35. Brown, Ian (2015). Regulation and the Internet of Things. Recuperate le 23 October 2016.
  36. FTC Report on Internet of Things Urges Companies to Adopt Best Practices to Address Consumer Privacy and Security Risks. Federal Trade Commission (27 January 2015). Recuperate le 23 October 2016.
  37. Lawson, Stephen (2 March 2016). IoT users could win with a new bill in the US Senate. Tech Barrista. Recuperate le 9 December 2019.
  38. California Legislative Information – SB-327 Information privacy: connected devices..
  39. Pittman, F. Paul (2 February 2016). Legal Developments in Connected Car Arena Provide Glimpse of Privacy and Data Security Regulation in Internet of Things. Lexology. Recuperate le 23 October 2016.
  40. Rasit, Yuce, Mehmet (2 November 2017). "Internet of things : the new government to business platform – a review of opportunities, practices, and challenges": 1–112. 

Bibliography[modificar | modificar fonte]

Patrono:Commons category

Patrono:Ambient intelligence Patrono:Embedded systems Patrono:Emerging technologies Patrono:Self-driving cars and enabling technologies Patrono:Authority control


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