Internet del objectos
Le Internet del Objectos (IdO) es un systema de apparatos computante interrelatate, machinas mechanic e digital, objectos, animales o personas que es dotate de identificatores (UID) unic e le capacitate de transferer datos super un rete sin besonia de interaction human-a-human o human-a-computator.
Le definition de Internet del Objectos ha evolvite per le convergentia de plure technologias, analyse datos real-time, apprendimento automatic, commoditate sensores e systema(s) integrate. Campos traditional de systema(s) integrate, rete(s) de sensores sin filo, systema(s) de controlo, automation (anque le domotica e le automation de edificio) e alteros, tote collabora al activation de Internet de Objectos
Historia[modificar | modificar fonte]
Le concepto de un rete de apparatos intelligente ha essite discutite desde 1982, con un distributor automatic de Coke modificate al Universitate Carnegie Mellon, que deveniva le prime apparato connexe a internet, capace a signalar su inventario e si le bibitas justo cargate era o non frigide.Documento del 1991 de Mark Weiser sur le apparatos computante ubique, "The Computer of the 21st Century", e sedes academic tal como UbiComp e PerCom ha producite le vision contemporanee del IdO. In 1994, Reza Raji ha describite le concepto in IEEE Spectrum como "[displaciamento] de micre pacchettos de datos a un grande collection de nodos, in maniera de integrar e automatisar toto, ab le articulos de menage al integre fabricas". Inter 1993 e 1997, plure companias ha proponite solutiones como at Work per Microsoft o NEST per Novell.
Applicationes[modificar | modificar fonte]
Le extensive configura de applicationes pro IoT apparatos es frequentemente dividite en spatios pro consummator, commercial, industrial e de infrastructura.
Applicationes pro consummatores[modificar | modificar fonte]
Un parte crescente del apparatos IdO es create pro usos del consummatores, assi como pro le connexivitate del vehiculos, le domotica, le technologia vestibile, connexivitate del salute e apparatos de telesurveliantia. 
Casa intelligente[modificar | modificar fonte]
Le apparatos IdO es un parte del plus grande concepto de automation de casa, que pote includer illumination, calefaction e climatisation, medios e systemas de securitate. Beneficios a longe-tempore poterea includer le sparnio de energia per assecurar que automaticamente luce e electronica es extinguite.
Un casa intelligente o automatisate poterea esser basate sur un platteforma o cardines que controla objectos e apparatos intelligente. Per exemplo, que usa HomeKit deApple manufacturers can have their home products and accessories controlled by an application in iOS devices such as the iPhone and the Apple Watch. This could be a dedicated app or iOS native applications such as Siri. This can be demonstrated in the case of Lenovo's Smart Home Essentials, which is a line of smart home devices that are controlled through Apple's Home app or Siri without the need for a Wi-Fi bridge. There are also dedicated smart home hubs that are offered as standalone platforms to connect different smart home products and these include the Amazon Echo, Google Home, Apple's HomePod, and Samsung's SmartThings Hub. In addition to the commercial systems, there are many non-proprietary, open source ecosystems; including Home Assistant, OpenHAB and Domoticz.
Assistentia al seniores[modificar | modificar fonte]
Un application clave de un casa intelligente es fornir assistentia pro personas con invaliditate o ancian.These home systems use assistive technology to accommodate an owner's specific disabilities. Voice control can assist users with sight and mobility limitations while alert systems can be connected directly to cochlear implants worn by hearing-impaired users. They can also be equipped with additional safety features. These features can include sensors that monitor for medical emergencies such as falls or seizures. Smart home technology applied in this way can provide users with more freedom and a higher quality of life.
The term "Enterprise IoT" refers to devices used in business and corporate settings. By 2019, it is estimated that the EIoT will account for 9.1 billion devices.
Applicationes commercial[modificar | modificar fonte]
Medic e cura del sanitate[modificar | modificar fonte]
Le Internet de Objectos Medic (IdOM), (alsi appellate le internet del objectos del salute), es un application del IdO pro propositos correlate medic e de salute, le collection de datos e analyse pro recerca e surveliantia.
</ref> Internet-of-things devices additionally will benefit from the stateless address auto-configuration present in IPv6, as it reduces the configuration overhead on the hosts, and the IETF 6LoWPAN header compression. To a large extent, the future of the Internet of things will not be possible without the support of IPv6; and consequently, the global adoption of IPv6 in the coming years will be critical for the successful development of the IoT in the future.
Application Layer[modificar | modificar fonte]
- ADRC  defines an application layer protocol and supporting framework for implementing IoT applications.
Short-range wireless[modificar | modificar fonte]
- Bluetooth mesh networking – Specification providing a mesh networking variant to Bluetooth low energy (BLE) with increased number of nodes and standardized application layer (Models).
- Light-Fidelity (Li-Fi) – Wireless communication technology similar to the Wi-Fi standard, but using visible light communication for increased bandwidth.
- Near-field communication (NFC) – Communication protocols enabling two electronic devices to communicate within a 4 cm range.
- Radio-frequency identification (RFID) – Technology using electromagnetic fields to read data stored in tags embedded in other items.
- Wi-Fi – Technology for local area networking based on the IEEE 802.11 standard, where devices may communicate through a shared access point or directly between individual devices.
- ZigBee – Communication protocols for personal area networking based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, providing low power consumption, low data rate, low cost, and high throughput.
- Z-Wave – Wireless communications protocol used primarily for home automation and security applications
Medium-range wireless[modificar | modificar fonte]
- LTE-Advanced – High-speed communication specification for mobile networks. Provides enhancements to the LTE standard with extended coverage, higher throughput, and lower latency.
- 5G - 5G wireless networks can be used to achieve the high communication requirements of the IoT and connect a large number of IoT devices, even when they are on the move.
Long-range wireless[modificar | modificar fonte]
- Low-power wide-area networking (LPWAN) – Wireless networks designed to allow long-range communication at a low data rate, reducing power and cost for transmission. Available LPWAN technologies and protocols: LoRaWan, Sigfox, NB-IoT, Weightless, RPMA.
- Very small aperture terminal (VSAT) – Satellite communication technology using small dish antennas for narrowband and broadband data.
Wired[modificar | modificar fonte]
- Ethernet – General purpose networking standard using twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with hubs or switches.
- Power-line communication (PLC) – Communication technology using electrical wiring to carry power and data. Specifications such as HomePlug or G.hn utilize PLC for networking IoT devices.
Standards and standards organizations[modificar | modificar fonte]
|Short name||Long name||Standards under development||Other notes|
|Auto-ID Labs||Auto Identification Center||Networked RFID (radiofrequency identification) and emerging sensing technologies|
|EPCglobal||Electronic Product code Technology||Standards for adoption of EPC (Electronic Product Code) technology|
|FDA||U.S. Food and Drug Administration||UDI (Unique Device Identification) system for distinct identifiers for medical devices|
|GS1||Global Standards One||Standards for UIDs ("unique" identifiers) and RFID of fast-moving consumer goods (consumer packaged goods), health care supplies, and other things||Parent organization comprises member organizations such as GS1 US|
|IEEE||Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers||Underlying communication technology standards such as IEEE 802.15.4, IEEE P1451-99 (IoT Harmonization), and IEEE P1931.1 (ROOF Computing).|
|IETF||Internet Engineering Task Force||Standards that comprise TCP/IP (the Internet protocol suite)|
|MTConnect Institute||—||MTConnect is a manufacturing industry standard for data exchange with machine tools and related industrial equipment. It is important to the IIoT subset of the IoT.|
|O-DF||Open Data Format||O-DF is a standard published by the Internet of Things Work Group of The Open Group in 2014, which specifies a generic information model structure that is meant to be applicable for describing any "Thing", as well as for publishing, updating and querying information when used together with O-MI (Open Messaging Interface).|
|O-MI||Open Messaging Interface||O-MI is a standard published by the Internet of Things Work Group of The Open Group in 2014, which specifies a limited set of key operations needed in IoT systems, notably different kinds of subscription mechanisms based on the Observer pattern.|
|OCF||Open Connectivity Foundation||Standards for simple devices using CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol)||OCF (Open Connectivity Foundation) supersedes OIC (Open Interconnect Consortium)|
|OMA||Open Mobile Alliance||OMA DM and OMA LWM2M for IoT device management, as well as GotAPI, which provides a secure framework for IoT applications|
|XSF||XMPP Standards Foundation||Protocol extensions of XMPP (Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol), the open standard of instant messaging|
Government regulation on IoT[modificar | modificar fonte]
One of the key drivers of the IoT is data. The success of the idea of connecting devices to make them more efficient is dependent upon access to and storage & processing of data. For this purpose, companies working on the IoT collect data from multiple sources and store it in their cloud network for further processing. This leaves the door wide open for privacy and security dangers and single point vulnerability of multiple systems. The other issues pertain to consumer choice and ownership of data and how it is used. Though still in their infancy, regulations and governance regarding these issues of privacy, security, and data ownership continue to develop. IoT regulation depends on the country. Some examples of legislation that is relevant to privacy and data collection are: the US Privacy Act of 1974, OECD Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flows of Personal Data of 1980, and the EU Directive 95/46/EC of 1995.
Current regulatory environment:
- Data security – At the time of designing IoT companies should ensure that data collection, storage and processing would be secure at all times. Companies should adopt a "defence in depth" approach and encrypt data at each stage.
- Data consent – users should have a choice as to what data they share with IoT companies and the users must be informed if their data gets exposed.
- Data minimization – IoT companies should collect only the data they need and retain the collected information only for a limited time.
However, the FTC stopped at just making recommendations for now. According to an FTC analysis, the existing framework, consisting of the FTC Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, and the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act, along with developing consumer education and business guidance, participation in multi-stakeholder efforts and advocacy to other agencies at the federal, state and local level, is sufficient to protect consumer rights.
A resolution passed by the Senate in March 2015, is already being considered by the Congress. This resolution recognized the need for formulating a National Policy on IoT and the matter of privacy, security and spectrum. Furthermore, to provide an impetus to the IoT ecosystem, in March 2016, a bipartisan group of four Senators proposed a bill, The Developing Innovation and Growing the Internet of Things (DIGIT) Act, to direct the Federal Communications Commission to assess the need for more spectrum to connect IoT devices.
Approved on 28 September 2018, Senate Bill No. 327 goes into effect on 1 January 2020. The bill requires "a manufacturer of a connected device, as those terms are defined, to equip the device with a reasonable security feature or features that are appropriate to the nature and function of the device, appropriate to the information it may collect, contain, or transmit, and designed to protect the device and any information contained therein from unauthorized access, destruction, use, modification, or disclosure,"
Several standards for the IoT industry are actually being established relating to automobiles because most concerns arising from use of connected cars apply to healthcare devices as well. In fact, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is preparing cybersecurity guidelines and a database of best practices to make automotive computer systems more secure.
A recent report from the World Bank examines the challenges and opportunities in government adoption of IoT. These include –
- Still early days for the IoT in government
- Underdeveloped policy and regulatory frameworks
- Unclear business models, despite strong value proposition
- Clear institutional and capacity gap in government AND the private sector
- Inconsistent data valuation and management
- Infrastructure a major barrier
- Government as an enabler
- Most successful pilots share common characteristics (public-private partnership, local, leadership)
See also[modificar | modificar fonte]
- Automotive security
- Big Data
- Cloud manufacturing
- Cyber-physical system
- Data Distribution Service
- Digital object memory
- Digital twin
- Edge computing
- Four-dimensional product
- Home automation
- Indoor positioning system
- Industry 4.0
- Internet of Military Things
- IoT Cloud
- Open Interconnect Consortium
- Responsive computer-aided design
- Smart grid
- Web of things
References[modificar | modificar fonte]
- nomine="Linux Objectos"
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