Bahaismo unitari

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Bahaismo unitari es un interpretation del religion Bahai - religion characterisate per focuso super libertate individual de conscientia vice le autoritate de dirigentes e institutiones Bahai, non ligite con le denomination del Fide Baha'i basate in Haifa. Historicamente, illo existeva depost le morte de propheta Bahai Bahá’u'lláh in 1892, quando schismo occurreva inter duo de su filios[1], usque adminime 1937, quando le secunde filio Mírzá Muhammad `Ali moriva. Hodie, Bahaismo unitari es revivificate per le Association Bahai Unitari, un organisation statounitese sin scopo lucrative fundate in marto 2010.

Bahais unitari considera le Báb e Bahá'u'lláh como inspirate instructores spiritual. Illi considera `Abdu’l-Bahá e Mirza Muhammad Ali como le successores de Bahá’u'lláh[2]. Illi considera le statuso de Shoghi Effendi como Guardiano del Fide Baha'i a esser de questionablie legitimitate, e illi non regarda le Domo universal de justitia sidite in Haifa, Israel, como un autoritate que debe esser sequite.

Symbolo del Bahaismo Unitari:

http://www.unitarianbahai.org/UBA-logo.gif

Historic Bahais unitari[modificar | modificar fonte]

Le prime Bahai unitari era Mírzá Muhammad `Alí[3], etiam cognite como Ghusn-i-Akbar (“le plus grande Branca”), le secunde filio de Bahá’u'lláh. Le testamento de Bahá’u'lláh nominava `Abdu’l-Bahá, le plus evate filio, como su successor, e affirmava que le statuso o position de Ghusn-i-Akbar era post celle de `Abdu’l-Bahá. Nulle altere infantes de Bahá’u'lláh era mentionate in le testamento. `Abdu’l-Bahá e Mírzá Muhammad Alí non concordava re quante autoritate le testamento de Bahá’u'lláh conferava super `Abdu’l-Bahá, e lor disputa deveniva personal e turnava a in un bello[4] familial, lequal era describite de varie punctos de vistas includente los de `Abdu’l-Bahá in su proprie testamento[5], Mírzá Muhammad Alí in un magazino Bahai unitari[6], Shoghi Effendi (granfilio e successor de `Abdu’l-Bahá) in su libro God Passes By[7], e William McElwee Miller, un ministro christian qui scribeva un libro critic contra le Fide Baha'i[8].

Le major parte del familia de Bahá’u'lláh supportava le latere de Ghusn-i-Akbar, includente le duo supervivente uxores de Bahá’u'lláh, Fatima e Gawhar, e omne de su infantes. Tamen, le filia de Bahá’u'lláh Bahiyyih Khánum, de su prime morite uxor Ásíyih Khánum, e le vaste majoritate de Baha'is supportava le latere de `Abdu’l-Bahá del disputa. Le subtenantes de Mírzá Muhammad `Alí se nominama “Unitarianos” nam illi emphasava le concepto islamic de tawhid, le Unitate de Deo e absolute prohibition de junger partenarios con Deo (cognoscite como unitarianismo inter christianos)[9]. Illi era excommunicate e declarate ruptores del Alliantia per `Abdu’l-Bahá pro lor refuso obedir le e acceptar su comprehension del religion[10].

Ibrahim George Kheiralla, Syrian Christian converto al Fide Bahá’í, emigrava al Statos unite de America e fundava le prime communitate statounitese Baha'i[11][12]. Initialmente ille era loyal a `Abdu’l-Bahá, sed ille opinava que `Abdu’l-Bahá era le retorno de Christo, e quando `Abdu’l-Bahá apprendeva que isto deveniva le vaste comprehension del Bahá’ís in America he effortiava corriger le error, secundo le autor baha'i Peter Smith[13]. Plus tarde, Kheiralla cambiava de latere in le conflicto inter le filios de Bahá’u'lláh e supportava Mírzá Muhammad `Alí. Ille formava le Societate de Behaistas, un denomination religiose promovente Bahaismo unitari in le Statos unite de America, que era dirigite post su morte per Shuaullah Behai, filio de Mírzá Muhammad Ali[14].

Shuaullah Behai, le plus evate granfilio de Bahá’u'lláh, emigrava al Statos unite de America in junio 1904 al requesta de su patre, Mírzá Muhammad `Alí[15]. Ille publicava un magazino Bahai unitari titulate Behai Quarterly dum tres annos, de 1934 usque 1937, in le lingua anglese, lequal exposava le scripturas de Ghusn-i-Akbar e varie altere Bahais unitarian Bahais, includente se ipse, Kheiralla, Mírzá Majdeddin (nepote e filio affin de Bahá’u'lláh), e plure altere statouniteses. Le Bahaismo unitari de iste periodo sembla esser disparite post le morte de Ghusn-i-Akbar, tamen illo continuava exister adminime inter le descendentes de Bahá’u'lláh tra le uxores posterior[16].

Moderne Bahais unitari[modificar | modificar fonte]

Nigar Bahai Amsalem, le grangranfilia de Bahá’u'lláh e granfilia de ambe Mírzá Muhammad `Alí (Ghusn-i-Akbar) e le plus juvene filio de Bahá’u'lláh Badiullah, subtene Bahaismo unitari e era interviewate dum 2006 in le documentari israeli Baha’is In My Backyard[17]. Illa construeva un sanctuario al tumba de su granpatre, Mírzá Muhammad Ali, e oppone le denomination basate in Haifa.

Le Bahais unitari hodie cerca a revivificar le schola de pensata de Ghusn-i-Akbar, dum etiam recognoscente le contributiones positive de `Abdu’l-Bahá al religion Bahai[18]. Moderne Bahaismo unitari es un comprehension que emphasa le unitate e transcendentia de Deo, le humanitate e limitationes de omne dirigentes religiose includente le prophetas, le importantia de inclusion e tolerantia inter fideles de Bahá'u'lláh e homines de omne credentias, e le responsabilitate del bahais engagiar in politica e causas social[19].

Moderne Bahaismo unitari ha un consideration tolerante e invitante verso alicun typos de homines lequales son regardate con suspicion o rejicite per le Fide Baha'i majoritari. Isto include lesbianas, gays, bisexuales, transsexuales e allosexuales, in copulo e non-celibe, los que participa activemente in politica, omne residentes de Israel, omne descendentes de Bahá'u'lláh e credentes in paises musulman que cela lor religion e publicamente practica Islam[20].

Plure Bahais unitari hodie son membros o subtenantes del Association universalista unitari e participa in su congregationes[21][22].

Referentias[modificar | modificar fonte]

  1. Bjorling, Joel (1985). The Baha’i Faith: A Historical Bibliography (Garland Reference Library of the Humanities, Vol 223). Scholarly Title. pp. 131-133. ISBN 978-0-8240-8974-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=ra3gAAAAMAAJ.
  2. Mirza Majdeddin. “Brief Behai History” Behai Quarterly. Volume III, No. 1 & 2, 1936, p. 20. http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/docs/vol8/32BQ20.gif
  3. Bjorling, Joel (1985). The Baha’i Faith: A Historical Bibliography (Garland Reference Library of the Humanities, Vol 223). Scholarly Title. pp. 131-133. ISBN 978-0-8240-8974-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=ra3gAAAAMAAJ.
  4. Browne, Edward Granville. Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion. http://books.google.com/books?id=SuU8AAAAIAAJ
  5. `Abdu’l-Bahá. Will and Testament of `Abdu’l-Bahá. http://bahai-library.com/file.php?file=abdulbaha_will_testament
  6. Behai, Shuaullah. “My Interview with Ghusni Akbar Mohammed Ali Behai, The Eldest Living Son of Beha U’llah.” Behai Quarterly. Volume IV, No. 1 & 2, 1937, p. 17. http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/docs/vol8/42BQ17.gif
  7. Rabbani, Shoghi Effendi. God Passes By. http://bahai-library.com/file.php?file=shoghieffendi_god_passes_by
  8. Miller, William McElwee (1974). The Baha’i Faith: Its History and Teachings. William Carey Library. ISBN 978-0-87808-137-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=gc3_6HVvZzkC.
  9. Baha’u'llah; Browne, Edward Granville (1898, 1918). Mirza Javad Qazvini, Risalih. (Epitome of Babi and Baha’i History). Cambridge University Press. p. 61. http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/diglib/books/A-E/B/browne/material/qazvini.htm.
  10. Momen, Moojan. “The Covenant, and Covenant-breaker”. A Short Encyclopedia of the Baha’i Faith (draft). http://bahai-library.com/?file=momen_encyclopedia_covenant.
  11. http://www.countyhistorian.com/cecilweb/index.php/Ibrahim_George_Kheiralla
  12. Garlington, William (2005). The Baha’i Faith in America. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7425-6234-9.
  13. Smith, Peter (2004). “The Baha’i Faith in the West”. Bahá’ís in the West. Kalimat Press. pp. 4, 7. ISBN 978-1-890688-11-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=x7wyJdyE60oC&lpg=PA13&ots=30IjH_BoUp&lr&pg=PA4#v=onepage&q&f=false.
  14. Behai Quarterly. Digitally reprinted at http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/docs/vol8/bq.htm. See Volume I, No. 1, p. 11: http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/docs/vol8/11BQ11.gif. See Volume IV, No. 1 & 2, p. 23: http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/docs/vol8/42BQ23.gif
  15. Behai, Shu’a'ullah (1934-1937). “Documents on the Shaykhi, Babi and Baha’i Movements”. Behai Quarterly 8 (2). http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/docs/vol8/bq.htm
  16. Bahá’í: Studies in Contemporary Religion, (Schisms Since the Bab, p64) by Margit Warburg ISBN 1-56085-169-4
  17. Bahais in My Backyard, A Belfilms Production. firsthandfilms.com. http://www.firsthandfilms.com/index.php?film=1000184
  18. “Ghusn-i-Akbar, the First Unitarian Bahai – Part 1: The Facts”. UU Bahai.com. March 30, 2010. http://www.uubahai.com/2010/03/ghusn-i-akbar-part-1-the-facts/
  19. “A liberal, all-inclusive worldwide Bahai faith community”. The Unitarian Bahai Association. http://www.unitarianbahai.org/
  20. “Differences Between the Unitarian and Haifan Bahai Faith”. The Unitarian Bahai Association. http://www.unitarianbahai.org/differences.html
  21. “Unitarian And Bahai”. The Unitarian Bahai Association. http://www.unitarianbahai.org/teaching/uandb.html
  22. “A Fellowship within the Unitarian-Universalist Association”. Unitarian-Baha’is. http://unitarianbahai.angelfire.com/

Ligamines externe[modificar | modificar fonte]